PIANO MUSIC FOR FOUR HANDS IN SIBELIUS


In this tutorial I’ll show the workflow I use to create a four hands piano score, and optionally, how to export a midi/audio reference.

Piano music for four hands has in general the lower part (Secondo) notated on the left hand pages, and the higher part (Primo) notated on the right hand pages. This way, the two players can easily read their own parts while following the other player’s part.

Notation template

In this example I will create a basic template with  4 pages having 5 systems each, in which every system has 4 bars, what would be 20 bars on a page and a total of 80 bars on 4 pages. Later when you to enter the music, you can always add or delete bars on a page.

  • Start by creating a normal piano solo score.
  • Add enough bars to get a total of 80 bars from the Create/Bar/other menu:

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  • Create a system break after every 4 bars.
  • Select bars 1-20 on page one and lock it with the Lock Format command from the Layout/Format menu:

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Do the same for bars 21-40 on page two, bars 41-60 on page three and bars 61-80 on page four. Or to do all the above steps at once, choose the Make Layout Uniform plugin from the Plug-in menu…

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… and fill in the amount of bars and systems:

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Title pages

The Secondo and Primo parts need both a title page with the same staff margin settings. This can be done the regular way in the Layout/Document Setup window. In the screenshot below, both 1st page and After first page have the same top and bottom staff margin values (shown in mm):

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Special Page Break

To set the staff margins for the pages after the 2nd title page, select the right bar-line from the last bar on page 2 and open Special Page Break from the Layout/Break menu:

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Select the New Margins check-box to open the Margins window. In the Staff Margins panel for this score I choose 18 mm for the top and bottom staff margins for the rest of the score:

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You can see where a special page-break is used by turning on the Layout Marks in the view menu:

A normal page break:  avh_08  A special page break: avh_09

Gap before bar

The 1st bar in a score doesn’t snap again the left page margin, but has some distance from it. This can be set by selecting the 1st bar and from the Properties window/Bars, set the distance you like (this distance is set in spaces). Do this on the title page for the Secondo and the Primo part:

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Bar numbers

The bar numbers in the Primo part (right hand pages) must always reflect the bar numbers in the Secondo part (left hand pages), you can change them by double clicking on a bar number which will bring up the Bar Number Change dialogue:

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It’s custom that the 1st bar number is always hidden, which you can do by right clicking the bar number and choosing Hide, from the Hide or Show menu:

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Time signature

When creating the time signature for Piano Primo, keep “Allow cautionary” unchecked so it doesn’t show up on the previous page:

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Title, subtitle etc…

Copy and paste the title text etc. from the Secondo to the Primo part:

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Part names

To show the part name at the start of the score for the Secondo part, go to the House Styles menu/Engraving Rules/Instruments, and in the Instrument Names tab, choose Full to be displayed At start.

To show the part name at the start of the score for the Primo part, choose Full from the At new Section menu and after that, create a section break in the last bar on page 1:

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Select the last bar on page 1 and in the properties/Bar window, check the Section End box:

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Right now, both parts are named Piano Secondo, however the second part must be named Piano Primo. Renaming the text will not help; both part names will stay the same because it’s the same Instrument. The solution here is to create an instrument change in the first bar of the Piano Primo part.

From the Create menu, choose Other/Instrument Change…

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…choose piano as instrument and click in bar 1 in the Piano Primo part:

Instrument change

Hide the newly created instrument name above the staff and rename the parts:

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The part names (primo and secondo) at the top of the pages are created with a normal Header Text style. From the Create menu, choose Text/Other System Text/Header:

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Because the Secondo part plays mostly in the lower register and the Primo part in the higher, let’s give them their correct clefs:

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Final result…

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Save as template

Saving the score as a template is done under the File/Export/Manuscript Paper menu:

save as template

To use this template when starting a new score, choose New from the file menu and choose the template in the Manuscript Paper menu:

open ,anuscripts

Engraving the score…

While engraving the music in the score, avoid that the template layout changes and accidentally deletes the special page breaks. Instead, add and delete bars somewhere in the middle of the pages and leave the 1st and last bar on every page as they are.

  • To add bars, choose Other from the menu Create/bar:

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  • To delete bars, hold down the CMD key, select a bar, add the SHIFT key, click the last bar. Hit delete.

After the music is engraved…

Aligning the staves on left- and right-hand pages

It’s very important that the staves on the left- and righthand pages are aligned vertically, this will make it easier for the players to follow each other’s parts:

  • Select a left-hand and a righthand page and from the Layout menu choose Align Staves:

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  • Make the selections as show in the screenshot below and hit OK:

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To align text and other kind of objects on the left- and right pages, select these object and use the Align in a Row command from the Layout menu.

Midi/audio export template

Exporting this score as midi or audio is a problem because the parts are not notated above each other but on two separate pages, making the two piano parts being played after each other instead of at the same time.

The workaround for this is to create a second score for midi/audio export only where the two piano parts are notated on the same page, and copy/paste the music from the notation layout into this second score.  After that it’s easy to export the midi/audio files.

Creating this midi/audio export template is very simple, because how it looks on the page doesn’t matter that much:

  • Start a new piano solo score and from the Create/Instrument menu, add a second piano:

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  • To avoid making mistakes while copying and pasting the music, make sure Instrument Names is turned on in House Style/Engraving Rules/Instruments:

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  • Change the clefs so that the Primo part has treble clefs for both staves and the Secondo part has bass clefs for both staves. Also, give the parts their correct part names so the exported midi file will show them after importing the midi file in your DAW:

rename parts for midi

  • Copy and paste the music from the Notation version into this template. Be careful not to forget special bar-lines, key- and time signatures.
  • Final step: exporting the score. In the file/export menu choose audio or midi:

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  • The imported midi file in your DAW:

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have a great day!

André

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Finishing up the engraved score, Object Check: dynamics


  • Open the score “After work, late at night” – Staff Margins

  From the View menu, check “Attachment Lines”:

attachements lines

My personal keyboard shortcuts for dynamics used in the course:

Filter Hairpins: F9

Filter Text: F10

Filter Dynamics: F11

Magnetic Layout on: CMD+,

Magnetic Layout off: CMD+.

In this step called Object Check, you are going to check the score from start to finish and see if the following objects need to be corrected:

1. Dynamics, 2. slurs, 3. notes, 4. fingerings and 5. tuplets.

If this is the first time you check a score this way, it’s a good idea to check only one object at the time, what would mean that you have to go through the score five times. After having done this with a couple of scores though, you can check all the objects at the same time. Let’s start with dynamics.

The dynamic object includes both the expression text:

expression text

and the hairpin:

hairpins

There are three rules to keep in mind when working with dynamics:

1. In instrumental scores they are always placed below the staff and in vocal scores they are always placed above the staff (to avoid collisions with the lyrics below the staff). This includes the grand staff (used for keyboard instruments):

dynamics placement example

There are some exceptions on this rule: when two parts share a staff and have different dynamics, you need to place the dynamics for the upper voice above the staff, for the lower voice below the staff. Also, for the grand staff, when the left hand staff has its own dynamics, place those dynamics below that staff. We don’t have these exceptions in our example score though, so we don’t need to worry about these things.

2. Within a single system, align the dynamics horizontally as much as possible. This will not always possible because of some notes being higher or lower in pitch than the other notes, those single dynamic objects will have to stand on their own horizontal distance from the staff:

centred dynamics

3. In a grand staff (keyboard music), centre the dynamics between the staves as much as possible, except when only one hand is playing, that dynamic object should be placed closer to that hand’s part: see screenshot above. To align dynamics within a system, you have to select them first. There are a couple of ways to do this.

Selecting the dynamics

1. Using your mouse. If you want to select more than one object, keep down the CMD-key while clicking the objects.

2. Double-clicking the staff that you want to edit, this will select the whole system and from the Edit/Filter menu, choose Dynamics. This will select both the Expression Text and the Hairpins:

selecting dynamics

3. Double-clicking the staff that you want to edit, and from the Plug-in menu, choose the Filter Text plugin:

filter txt

This plugin will display every text style that is used in the selected bars which works faster than using the standard Edit/Filter menu plugins. Choose Expression and click the Select button:

expression

This plugin will only select the Expression Text and NOT the hairpins. To select the hairpins within a system, double click the staff that you want to edit, and from the Edit/Filter menu, choose Hairpins:

hairpins 2

Personally I like to align expression text and hairpins separately, because they do not line up nicely when done at once. I use therefore the 3rd option.

Instead choosing the hairpin filter from the menu, I assigned it to one of the function-keys on my keyboard. To see how this is done, please see the Pagination and Page Turns step. The Filter Text plugin, if installed as described at the beginning of this course, can be found here:

shrtcut 1

Moving the dynamics

After making the selection, use the arrow keys to move them vertically up and down and use the Align in a Row command from the Layout menu to align them horizontally:

align in a row

Also here I use the keyboard shortcut instead to increase work speed: SHIFT+CMD+r (remember “r” for “row”).

Sibelius will try to keep them horizontal aligned within the system because of the Magnetic Layout option (that’s why they are jumping while you move them). This option can do a good job, but sometimes it’s a little bit in the way. I tend most of the time to turn it of while aligning the expression text objects. For the hairpins I leave the magnetic Layout on, because the magnetic layout also avoids them to overlap objects horizontally, correcting the length from every single hairpin by hand can be very time-consuming. Magnetic Layout can be turned off from a selection in the Edit/Magnetic Layout menu:

Magn layout on off

Standard, there are no keyboard shortcuts assigned to the magnetic layout, but to be able to work fast and avoid using the menus, I assigned them as shown above.

One extra step I take sometimes when the dynamic looks very out of place, is using Reset Position from the Layout menu:

reset position

This will place the object back to the original default position as set in Sibelius. Expression text is always placed slightly before the notehead whenever possible. As you can see, I assigned the F13 key to this command for faster workflow. However, this will only work if the object is still connected to the correct note in the score with an attachment line which normally is the case if the dynamic was created the correct way. The attachment line is the grey dotted line in the screenshot below:

pp placement

You could also have a situation like this:

pp placement 2

Using the Reset Position command wouldn’t help here, you will have to drag the object with the mouse instead to its correct place.

Whenever you select a hairpin, Sibelius shows a centred dote line which is a great help to get them horizontally aligned with the expression text. This line  will only show up show up with the Magnetic Layout option is turned on:

dotted line

Here are the steps I take to align the dynamics in a score, always working on one system at a time. The keyboard shortcuts are my personal ones:

  • Double click a staff
  • Select expression text with Filter Text (F10)
  • Turn off magnetic layout (CMD+.)
  • Use Reset Position (F13)
  • Align them horizontally with Align in a Row (SHIFT+CMD+r)
  • Using the arrow keys to move them vertically to the best place possible.
  • Double click a staff
  • Select Hairpins with the Hairpin Filter (F9)
  • Align horizontally with the Align in a Row command
  • With the hairpins still selected, using the arrow keyboard keys to align them horizontally with the expression text.
  • Adjust the length of the hairpins with mouse dragging.

Of course there are always situations in which you will do things different or leave steps out, practice will teach you this. For example, if there is only a single expression text in a system, you will use your mouse to select it and the arrow keys to move it and not the Align in a Row command. Or sometimes you don’t need to use the Align in a Row command because the objects are already aligned correctly.

Now let’s have a look at the example score

In the first system, bar 1-4, the expression text objects are horizontally aligned correctly, but not centred between the staves of the grand staff. Also, they seem to be too much to the left of the notes they belong too. The hairpins are aligned horizontally correct as well, but are too short, we will have to drag them to their correct length. Here is how I correct this:

  • Double click the piano right hand staff
  • Select expression text with Filter Text (F10)
  • Turn off magnetic layout (CMD+.)
  • Use Reset Position (F13) – the text is now placed correctly under the notes.
  • Using the arrow keys to move them centred between the staves.
  • Double click the piano right hand staff
  • Select Hairpins with the Hairpin Filter (F9)
  • Using the arrow keyboard keys to align them horizontally with the expression text.
  • Adjust the length of the hairpins with mouse dragging.

From this point there could still be need to fine-tune the dynamics as a whole in this system which you can do by double click the right hand staff and choosing Dynamics from the Edit/Filter menu. Use the arrow keys to drag everything up or down:

dynamics filter

As you can see in the screenshot above, I assigned this filter to the F11 key on my keyboard.

Here is the first system again, now with corrected dynamics:

corrected system

As you can see, I decided to lower the last two bars’ dynamics. Keeping them at the same height as the first bars would place them too close to the right hand slurs, but still the total image looks good what is the most important. As always, working on the layout of a score is an art and there are moments that rules have to be broken. The hairpins are now at the correct length and centred horizontally with the expression text.

Although the dynamics are pretty much done with this step, the final tweaks on the full score will be done in the step 8, where we make the last and mostly subtle adjustments on the objects that still need this, including dynamics.

For the final result, see Sibelius score “After work, Late at night”- Dynamic check.

That’s it for this step. In the next step, we will have a look at the slurs.

Have a great day!

André